The responsibility expected for a position should be commensurate with the authority delegated to that position, and vice-versa. As project managers, we encounter so many things that can frustrate us and affect us even though they are beyond our control. Responsibility is a concomitant of authority, therefore authority and responsibility should be equal. While the authority flows from a superior to a subordinate when assignment of duty is made, the responsibility flows from a subordinate to his superior when former undertakes the obligation of accomplishing the duties assigned to him. Shravan Kumar spent his youth carrying parents on his shoulders to pilgrim centers. (a) The subjective aspect that is the personal aspect of accepting a communication or order as authoritative; and. Therefore, it becomes important that with every authority position an equal and opposite responsibility should be … As per this definition, there are two aspects involved in the concept of authority. Therefore, it is said that authority is delegated, responsibility is created and accountability is imposed. This principle avoids misuse of authority and at the same time helps in proper discharge of responsibility. In general, in business organizations, the authority is a result of the contractual agreement, under which the subordinate have agreed to perform certain services in return of monitory benefit. A person can influence the behavior of others even if he does not command any formal, legal or traditional authority. Is ‘Responsibility’ Different from ‘Accountability’? Authority is seldom simply bestowed by a senior executive, but only earned through responsible behavior. Since 1950 the term technical authority or computer authority has come into use. If the authority is more than responsibility then chances are that a manager may misuse it. So a manager while using authority, must keep in his mind, the reaction of his orders on employees, shareholders and customers etc. The right may flow from a legal-institutional framework (a law governing the organization, or a manual, or guidelines framed by the organization). A person will be accountable only when he has been assigned any task or responsibility by the person who commands authority over him. Authority is a formal or institutionalized form of power vested in a position or office. If the subordinate ably and willingly accept to perform the assigned tasks or responsibility, and performs it in the manner desired by the manager, he can rest content that his authority enjoys acceptance. Share Your PDF File They need proper consideration while introducing delegation of authority within an Organisation. It’s equally important to make the distinction early on in the project regarding authority and responsibility. No subordinate can be ordered to do a job which is impossible to be performed due to biological limitations. Authority may not mean the same thing as power A person many have the power to influence the activity and behaviour of other persons but he may not have the official or legal right of command and thus enforce compliance by others. From the above definitions, two points become clear that the possessor of authority influences the activity and behaviour of other individuals or groups and that he has the right to issue orders and ensure their compliance by subordinates. The extent of delegation of authority also restricts the authority of a manager. Delegation of authority from a manager to a subordinate is in proportion to the nature of tasks and responsibility assigned to the subordinate. This shows that the obligation is the essence of responsibility. A manager is responsible for the performance of the duties even though he may delegate to a subordinate authority to accomplish a service and the subordinate also in his turn may delegate a part of his authority received by him. Responsibility is defined as oneâ€™s obligation to perform the functions assigned to the best of oneâ€™s ability in accordance with directions received. iii. 3. The competition in prices of the product and other economic factors also affect the authority. But his decision to do so is often influenced by his personal likes and dislikes and socio-economic, educational and cultural background. ‘Competence’ or ‘Personal Authority’ theory. In order to ensure that authority and responsibility are co-equal, a correlative action may be resorted to. It may be favourable or unfavourable. Responsibility is the most misunderstood term in the literature of management. Understanding how these informal groups function, now they support or detract from the formal structure and how communications flow to and from them is critical for the manager who expects to oversee the total, living organization. Responsibility is a personal attribute and it cannot be deleted. In addition, authority and responsibility should be clearly defined for all positions. CA NewsGram, Fourth Quarter 2004, Vol. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Therefore, it becomes important that with every authority position an equal and opposite responsibility should be attached. Physical limitations such as climate, geography, chemical elements and so on, have their limiting effect on authority. It is the right to decide what should be done or the right to do it oneself or to require someone else to do it. “Duty” or “responsibility” refers to an obligation or liability for performance of a task or responsibility that is assigned. How to survive when your role is soon to be eliminated ? These units must be structured together and their efforts directed towards attaining the goals of the enterprise. 2. 9. Not all managers at that level, however, necessarily have equal authority and responsibility. If the marketing manager directs the sales sup… The relationships that exist in an organization may be formal and/or informalâ€?. The other means, that it can help in making authority more effective and may include the backing and support to lower executives, from the top executives, due attention to their advice, usually confirming their decisions, permitting command to flow through proper channels and supplying adequate information and materials to them. Responsibility comes hand in hand with authority. 3. Also, all authority is formal. The important principle of authority is: Authority and responsibility should be equal. It is the authority a person enjoys by virtue of his superior position in the organisation. Regard for the Mores and Folk Ways of the Group: Authority when used commands reaction from individual as well as groups. Lord Ram went into exile to honor the promise once made by his father. Principle of Parity of Authority and Responsibility: Authority and responsibility must be co-extensive. Then, it assigns tasks and responsibility to the staff, based on their competence levels. Though a certain part of the responsibility is delegated to the subordinate the original and entire amount of the responsibility still rests with the superior. Sometimes it so happens these attractive and commanding personality do not have any authority, but people waits for his guidance and follow it taking it as an order. This shows that the obligation is the essence of responsibility. A building or machine etc. 2. If the subordinates do not accept the authority of manager, they may not willingly comply with his decisions and orders – they may even defy them. The Need for Authority Equal to Responsibility. Establishing vertical and horizontal relationships can do this more effectively through the sharing of authority effected by delegation. Compliance is obtained in a number of ways trough persuasion, sanctions, request, coercion, constraint or force”. It is always considered to be the key to a successful Managerial job. Authority flows from superior to the subordinate manager to whom certain duties are assigned and responsibility is the obligation of the subordinate to accomplish these duties. Authority must be equal to Responsibility. The authority-and-responsibility principle states: "authority should equal responsibility when work is delegated from a supervisor to a subordinate." The relationship between CEO and the production manager of a company is a case of continuing responsibility – the production manager must keep performing his task or responsibility so long as he is in the employment of the company. Authority and right to command helps the manager get work done by others in the organization and the degree of authority goes on descending down the line. The essence of responsibility is then, obligation.”. They do so because the Company Law gives them this authority. state of being accountable for something or someone that is under one’s control Accountability arises out of responsibility and responsibility arises out of authority. A manager’s authority is restricted by the enterprise goals, objectives, politics, programmes and procedures etc. In a business organization, which is authoritarian in nature, the word authority refers to the power of an individuals to direct others by giving orders. Duty or responsibility may be in terms of functions, targets or goals. – Keith Davis, Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform his duty as required by his superior – Theo Haiman. The word authority is used with different meanings as: A person with superior knowledge and skill is described as an authority in the sense of an expert. In management science authority, responsibility and accountability are three terms around which the whole set of managerial activities cluster. If responsibility is more than authority then he may feel frustrated. The subordinate will accept the authority of a command, understand it, believe it and follow it in the interest of the organization. (c) If the consequences of not accepting the authority would damage his career prospects in the organization, including perhaps loss of job. How to turn around Late-Reporting to office? Responsibility may be a continuing obligation or specific obligation. Exit Formalities : When your employer is not ready to relieve you from your services! The essence of responsibility is then, obligation.”. When a superior assigns some work to a subordinate, the latter becomes responsible for performance of tasks. 20 No. The subordinates accept responsibility and are accountable because they are bound by service contract that requires them to do so to become entitled to monetary and other benefits and privileges provided by the organization. Giving employees greater responsibilities without the authority to meet them is a recipe for managerial disaster. Under the acceptance theory, it is believed that authority comes to the manager by the acceptance of power to make and enforce decisions through his subordinates. This happens when he enjoys support and confidence of his followers because they see him as personification of their urges and aspirations. (iii) He wants to avoid disciplinary action, (iv) he regards the maturity, age or experience of superior (v) he wants to avoid responsibility, (vi) he believes that the authority is legitimate and should be followed. Whenever authority is used, responsibility ensues. Authority is the legal right to give the command, order or instruction and compel the subordinates to do a certain act. TOS4. The task or responsibility to produce minimum 100 units per day is a task or responsibility expressed in quantitative terms. Likewise, only a person who is subordinate to the authority-holding person can be assigned task or responsibility. What happens when an Open-Door meeting goes wrong? Greater authority comes with greater responsibility. So, authority should be delegated as to be equal to responsibility, consigned to the worker. In the following lines, their explanation has been given: 1. According to Koontz and O’Donnell “the obligation of a subordinate to whom a duty has been assigned to perform the duty”. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform the work assigned to him by his superior. Assignment of a task or responsibility casts a duty to perform something. His zone of acceptance will be determined by a number of factors. It stems from the top and is transmitted downwards through the line by the process of delegation. A manager has authority to order his subordinates to act or not to act in a particular manner. To run the organization towards its goal and objectives the authority of the executive has to be re-delegated to the managers down the line to reach the bottom line managers. 4. This principle avoids misuse of authority and at the same time helps in proper discharge of responsibility. Non-living inanimate beings – machine, tool, capital – cannot be assigned task or responsibility. Some persons having attractive personality command others to work. If bank officers decide to meet every Saturday evening for two hours and form a recreation club to play games outside the bank, they are meeting in an informal organization. Generally the authority to make decisions or the right to command decreases as it proceeds from the highest to lowest level of an organisation. Avoidance of gaps in delegation of responsibility. He tells the participants to do certain things in a specified manner, to obey orders from designated individuals, and to work co-operatively with others. In every organization, this process of re-delegation is essential to run the organization. 6. A COMMAND CLIMATE ASSESSMENT SHOULD BE CONDUCTED AT WHAT MIN FREQ ... coordinating a comprehensive safety program based on the objectives of the CO is the responsibility of what authority. Koontz and O’ Donnel define it as the obligation of a subordinate, to whom a superior has assigned a task and delegated authority, to perform the task as required. In the process of delegation, the superior transfers his duties/responsibilities to his subordinate and also give necessary authority for performing the responsibilities assigned. The subordinate expects such decisions, and his behaviour is determined by them. The important principles which could be observed in delegating responsibility are: 1. A manager has authority to reward and punish his subordinates based on their performance. Authority – Responsibility Relationship: Authority and responsibility of a manager should be co-equal i.e. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior. may also impose certain limitations on the use of authority. According to George R. Terry, responsibility is inseparable, there is every danger that it may be misused by the possessor. Beyond these three terms managerial activities may be reduced to a farce. Therefore responsibility cannot be delegated. A formal organization is a system of well defined jobs, each bearing a definite measure of authority, responsibility and accountability. – Thought Paper, Avoiding mistakes in organizing by planning. Senior citizens are willingly offered seats in crowded buses and trains; no one minds their jumping the queue to visit a doctor, or to withdraw money from bank. As Simon puts it, authority is the power to make decisions which guide the action of another. Authority and Responsibility in Management – Meaning, Definition, Concept, Characteristics and Relationship, According to Barnard, “Authority is the character of a communication (order) in a formal organization, by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to, or member of, the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or not do, so far as the organization is concerned.”. On the other hand, Responsibility is the outcome of authority. The modern society this tradition-conferred authority is power to exact obedience it ignores the organisational situation of continuing... Articles and memorandum of association which are not according to George R. Terry observes in! 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